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GALLERY: U 1 Gauge Theory

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Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles . Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential , with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon , three weak bosons and eight gluons .

In string theory , D-branes are a class of extended objects upon which open strings can end with Dirichlet boundary conditions , after which they are named. D-branes were discovered by Dai, Leigh and Polchinski , and independently by Hořava in 1989. In 1995, Polchinski identified D-branes with black p-brane solutions of supergravity , a discovery that triggered the Second Superstring Revolution and led to both holographic and M-theory dualities.

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