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GALLERY: U 1 Gauge Symmetry

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Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking , by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state. [1] [2] [3] In particular, it can describe systems where the equations of motion or the Lagrangian obey symmetries, but the lowest-energy vacuum solutions do not exhibit that same symmetry . When the system goes to one of those vacuum solutions, the symmetry is broken for perturbations around that vacuum even though the entire Lagrangian retains that symmetry.

Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles . Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential , with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon , three weak bosons and eight gluons .

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2017 Bentley Continental GT. Launched back in 2003, this Bentley’s grand-tourer was the first car produced after the brand had been bought by Volkswagen. Besides, it was the first automaker’s vehicle released for the “mass consumers”. Built on the same base as VW’s Phaeton, the Continental could turn the company into a prominent international brand. In 13 years the model has undergone a lot of improvements. Borrowing at the start a W12 engine from its German sibling, later, the Conti additionally received a V8 motor and lost some weight. That brought to it more popularity. According to media reports, Bentley is going to release a next-gen Continental GT in 2017. The car will come on a new platform, due to which it will be lighter than its predecessor. Although the grand-tourer will keep the V8 as a base version engine, the advanced trims can be equipped with a plug-in hybrid power unit. Exterior design. While creating the new GT, the Bentley designers tried to mix the classic Continental style and the new technological aspirations. The 2017 Bentley Continental GT is expected to be based on the Volkswagen MLB platform, that will reduce its dimensions and weight. The renewed forms will make it resemble the EXP Speed 10 concept that apparently influenced the new Conti’s design. The car planned to be released mainly as a coupe, will receive a more attractive look thanks to a new grill, headlights with LED technology and a bodywork with sharper lines. The outlines of the rear end resemble those of the classical R-Type Continental produced in the 1950s. With such forms, the car looks sportive and confident. The model will come with 20- or 21-wheels that are going to look freshly in the newly designed fenders. The expressive modern traits are the result of Bentley’s experience in making coach-built vehicles with refined elements. Interior design. As far as the interior of the 2017 Bentley Continental GT, the company's designers have tried to make it as comfortable and spacious as possible. The optimal refining has been carried out due to undiverted attention even to the smallest elements. For the cabin’s decoration, straight-grooved patterns have been used. For excellent comfort, the Mulliner GT Design-branded seats will be upholstered in semi-aniline leather. The front seats will be equipped with cooling and massage systems. The steering wheel has also been improved by adding knobbed paddle-shift selectors. Besides, it has a new shape providing better grip for the driver. The Bentley-styled dashboard features soft-touch leather d?cor and good-looking analogue gauges that can be illuminated with “blood orange” light in darkness. Technology. While being an advanced car, the 2017 Bentley Continental GT can boast its technological part. The Bentley-designed touch-screen system features both digital sensor controls and traditional turning knobs and buttons offering the sharpest usability. The cut-edge digital system provides important information about the car, including tire pressure. The touch-screen can show the navigational map, and also provide access to the mobile functions via Bluetooth connection or the slot for SIM cards. Optionally, WiFi can be available. Engines and specs. The 2017 Bentley Continental GT will continue Volkswagen’s V8 engine, while the W12 will be revised. The eight-cylindered motor with displacement can produce over 520 horsepower and 502 lb-ft of torque. The W12 TSI engine is upgraded to combine direct injection and turbocharging. This will allow it to deliver up to 600 horsepower as well as 664 lb-ft of torque. The 6.0L motor, in some variants, will be complemented by an electric engine reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Both engines will be coupled with an 8-speed ZF automatic gearboxes.