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GALLERY: U 1 Gauge Symmetry

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Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles . Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential , with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon , three weak bosons and eight gluons .

The first step towards the Standard Model was Sheldon Glashow 's discovery in 1961 of a way to combine the electromagnetic and weak interactions . [4] In 1967 Steven Weinberg [5] and Abdus Salam [6] incorporated the Higgs mechanism [7] [8] [9] into Glashow's electroweak interaction , giving it its modern form.

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