GALLERY: U 1 Gauge Field


Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles . Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential , with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon , three weak bosons and eight gluons .

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Getting ready for vacation: 10 important women`s beauty secrets. When you go to the sea, it is important not only to prepare your luggage, pack your evening dresses and review your pre-departure checklist. You also need to prepare yourself for vacation. In this case, you will not return from there with dull hair, little wrinkles and uneven skin tone. 10 simple procedures will help you avoid unpleasant surprises. Have your hair cut. If you need a haircut, choose the one that does not require daily styling. Dye your hair. If you decide to dye your hair, do it about two weeks prior to the proposed date of your departure. Thus, you will make your hair color last longer. There is less chance that your hair color will fade in the sun or salt water will strip it away. Get a manicure and pedicure. These procedures are recommended to be performed about a week before the departure. Warn your nail artist that you are going on vacation. And you will be offered a special nail polish to protect your nails from ultraviolet radiation. But it is better to refuse nail extension. The fact is that if you break your nail, you will have to look for a nail artist right at the resort. Moisturize your face and body. If you want your tan to be smooth and beautiful, prepare your skin in advance. It should be clean and moisturized. Choose masks, creams and scrubs that are suitable for your skin type. Avoid procedures that can cause irritation, including chemical peeling, after which specialists do not recommend sunbathing for 1-3 months. It is better to choose mild exfoliation at home. Visit solarium. If you plan to go to the sea, try to find some time for at least 5-7 procedures. They will prepare your skin for the sun, which will help you not only to get perfect tan but also to avoid burns in the first days. Test your sunscreen products. If you buy a product for the first time, be sure to conduct an allergy test in advance in order to avoid nasty surprises on vacation. Make hair removal. Perform this procedure a few days before coastal holidays. That is 4-5 days for waxing (skin irritation will disappear during this time) and 2-4 weeks for laser hair removal or electrolysis (this is what is required for the procedure and skin recovery). In any case, you better consult a specialist who will give your skin the individual attention it deserves and advise skincare products. Tint your eyebrows and eyelashes and don`t worry about your make-up on the beach. Improve your body. The simplest diet is to add more fruits and vegetables to your diet and reduce the amount of meat, sweets and bakery products. Dried fruits are healthier than sweets and buns. And eat fish instead of meat. It will improve the condition of your hair and skin. Go to the dentist. You better visit your dentist 2-3 weeks before vacation even if you plan just to whiten your teeth. If you have any small inflammations, they may be increased when new bacteria and microorganisms come in contact with the affected tissue (especially if you are going to an exotic country). And it is extremely undesirable to treat or remove teeth 1-2 days before the departure.