James Cash Penney was born in Hamilton, Missouri. After graduating from high school, Penney worked for a local retailer. He relocated to Colorado at the advice of a doctor, hoping that a better climate would improve his health. In 1898, Penney went to work for Thomas Callahan and Guy Johnson, who owned dry goods stores called Golden Rule stores in Colorado and Wyoming. In 1899, Callahan sent Penney to Evanston, Wyoming, to work with Johnson in another Golden Rule store. Callahan and Johnson asked Penney to join them in opening a new Golden Rule store. Using money from savings and a loan, Penney joined the partnership and moved with his wife and infant son to Kemmerer, Wyoming, to start his own store. Penney opened the store on April 14, 1902. He participated in the creation of two more stores and purchased full interest in all three locations when Callahan and Johnson dissolved their partnership in 1907. In 1909, Penney moved his company headquarters to Salt Lake City, Utah to be closer to banks and railroads. By 1912, Penney had 34 stores in the Rocky Mountain States. In 1913, all stores were consolidated under the J. C. Penney banner. The so-called "mother store", in Kemmerer, opened as the chain's second location in 1904. It still operates, as of 2018, albeit with shorter hours than many other locations, and is closed on Sundays.
Milk, unsweetened, dark, or even blond chocolate is the most well-liked confection around the world. And those who have sweet tooth find hot chocolate the best drink ever. This cocoa product has gained popularity due to its rich flavor, creamy consistency, and anti-stress effect.
Chocolate was consumed as bitter beverage, not as solid bar, for 90% of its history. Mayans and Aztecs were the fist who brewed this bitter drink from cacao beans. Ancient Maya regularly grew cacao trees and Aztecs got it later. They called chocolate “Xocolatl” that means “bitter water”.
So chocolate was unknown thing until Europeans discovered America and tasted food of native cuisine. At first the drink was very bitter and foreigners didn’t like it, so they add sugar or honey to the beverage.
In the 1600s chocolate was popular drink across Europe because it was believed to have health-giving property. At that time it cost too high and was served only to elite class. But in the beginning of the 18th century price for chocolate became affordable and the drink turned out to be wide-spread.
First chocolate bar in traditional solid form was created in the 19th century by Joseph Fry, but his product didn’t attract much attention because it was bitter. And later milk was added to the product that made it the most famous confection.
Varieties of chocolate.
Unsweetened chocolate is the purest kind of chocolate because it consists of only cocoa solids and as a result it’s extremely bitter. So this kind of chocolate is not suitable for eating but it’s best for baking because it lends intense chocolate flavor to baked products.
Milk chocolate is considered to be very popular variety of chocolate with which most people are familiar. Unlike dark chocolate it includes high percentage of powdered or condensed milk. And dark chocolate is made of no or very little milk and is loaded with nutrients that can positively affect your health.
Hot chocolate is heated drink that’s great choice for cold fall and winter days. It consists of melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk, and sugar or chocolate syrup. Some brands include powdered milk to the chocolate so that the drink can be made with only hot water.
Blond chocolate is new variety of confection. It is caramel-colored chocolate with slightly salty taste and intense biscuit flavor. Blond chocolate is introduced by Valrhona and is called Dulcey.
Chocolate flavors are quite different. They range from usual ones such as cherry, coconut, mint, orange, fudge, and caramel to pretty unusual. Extraordinary chocolate bars with chili, curry, ginger, wasabi, chai tea, or cheese flavors are also available.