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GALLERY: J

In English, ⟨j⟩ most commonly represents the affricate /dʒ/. In Old English, the phoneme /dʒ/ was represented orthographically with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨cȝ⟩. Under the influence of Old French, which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin /j/, English scribes began to use ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) to represent word-initial /dʒ/ in Old English (for example, iest and, later jest), while using ⟨dg⟩ elsewhere (for example, hedge). Later, many other uses of ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) were added in loanwords from French and other languages (e. g. adjoin, junta). The first English language book to make a clear distinction between ⟨i⟩ and ⟨j⟩ was published in 1633. In loan words such as raj, ⟨j⟩ may represent /ʒ/. In some of these, including raj, Azerbaijan, Taj Mahal, and Beijing, the regular pronunciation /dʒ/ is actually closer to the native pronunciation, making the use of /ʒ/ an instance of a hyperforeignism. Occasionally, ⟨j⟩ represents the original /j/ sound, as in Hallelujah and fjord (see Yodh for details). In words of Spanish origin, where ⟨j⟩ represents the voiceless velar fricative [x] (such as jalapeño), English speakers usually approximate with the voiceless glottal fricative /h/.

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Top 5 books about traveling. 1. Matthew Fort «Sweet Honey, Bitter Lemons: Travels in Sicily on a Vespa». Matthew Fort traveled Sicilia being hungry and desirous to know the myth of the island. We can call this book «gastronomical diary». The author paid much attention to Sicilian cuisine, especially its features and the differences from Italian cuisine. This novel represents the travel notes made by ordinary person in the most beautiful, quiet and intriguing place. 2. Elizabeth Gilbert «Eat, Pray, Love». The main character, Elizabeth Gilbert, set off a trip around the world after her painful nodivorce. She has changed her place three times: Italy, India and Bali. In Italy she discovered the world of the simple and sensual pleasures such as delicious food, walking alone and the happiness to know something new about the history, language and architecture. In India Elizabeth has made good friends. She described her life in Ashram where she had to wake up early, followed the vow and prayed every morning. The last place Bali helped her to find the harmony but at the same time she found her love. 3. Heinrich Harrer «Seven Years in Tibet». Heinrich Harrer leaved his wife and went to Himalaya to reach the Nanga Parbat top. He had not achieved it because of avalanche so the group had to come back to the camp. Heinrich decided to go through Tibet with his friend and soon they came to Lhasu. There the main character met Dalai-Lama who was just ten years. They became friends and suddenly found out the news about occupation of China. In the end Heinrich came back to Austria and reached an understanding with his son. The boy was already 12 at that moment. He forgived his father and they made a decision to go to the mountains together. 4. Peter Mayle «A Year in Provence». The characters of this book have done so many things which are just dreamt by many of us: they had bought an old house in Provence and started their new life in it. The first year was full of gastronomical pleasures, unexpected discoveries and funny adventures. They learned the game «boules», visited the goat`s run and experienced the pleasure of being in the south French provinces. 5. Gregory David Roberts «Shantaram». The main character is a former drug seller and robber. He escaped from the prison where he has been staying during nineteen years. After some time spent in Australia he decided to go to Bombay. Due to the personal characteristics he made friends very quickly. He worked as a mediator in the small illegal transactions and lived in the slum where he provided medical care. Lindsay was engaged in illegal trade in currency. In a short period of time two his friends had died and he had gone to Afghanistan where the war was going. The novel is based on a true story although all characters are fictional.